Do Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics Prevent or Delay Hospital Readmission?


College of Pharmacy

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Introduction: Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were developed as a way to decrease pill burden and simplify medication regimens by allowing less frequent administration to assist with medication adherence. Methods: The purpose of this study was to determine whether LAI antipsychotics prevent or delay hospital readmission in patients with a known history of medication non-adherence. The study is a retrospective evaluation of 240 men and women 18-65 years of age diagnosed with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder discharged from an inpatient state hospital over a 2 year period of time on a LAI antipsychotic (fluphenazine LAI, haloperidol LAI, risperidone LAI or paliperidone LAI) or oral antipsychotic. Patients on LAIs were matched to patients on an equivalent oral dose, psychiatric diagnosis, number of prior hospital admissions, and length of stay. Results: Those who received a LAI (N = 120) had a significantly longer survival time (mean 278.0 days) without readmission compared to those who did not (N = 120; mean 243.6 days). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of one-year readmission between those who did receive a LAI (43.1%) and those who did not (56.9%). Those who received a LAI with administration frequency of a month or longer had a significantly longer survival time without readmission (mean 307.9 days) when compared to those with a shorter administration frequency (mean 245.0 days). Conclusion: This study revealed the use of LAI antipsychotics in those with a history of medication non-adherence, particularly those with longer administration frequency, have potentially promising outcomes.