Upregulation of Mouse Genes in HSV-1 Latent TG after Butyrate Treatment Implicates the Multiple Roles of the LAT-ICP0 Locus
National Institutes of Health, LSU Eye Center Core Grant for Vision Research,
Department of Biology
PURPOSE. To determine host response by gene expression in HSV-1 latent trigeminal ganglia (TG) after sodium butyrate (NaBu) treatment. METHODS. Corneas of 6-week-old female BALB/c mice were scarified and inoculated with HSV-1 17Syn+ (high phenotypic reactivator) or its mutant 17ΔPst(LAT-) (low phenotypic reactivator) at 104 plaque-forming units/eye. NaBu-induced viral reactivation was by intraperitoneal (IP) administration at postinfection (PI) day 28, followed by euthanasia after 1 hour. NaBu-treated, uninfected mice served as the control. The resultant labeled cRNA from TG isolated total RNA was hybridized to gene microarray chips containing 14,000 mouse genes. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to confirm gene expression. RESULTS. Differential induction of gene expression between 17Syn+ and its mutant 17ΔPst(LAT-) was designated as NaBuinduced gene expression and yielded significant upregulation of 2- to 16-fold of 0.4% (56/14,000) host genes probed, comprising mainly nucleosome assembly and binding, central nervous system structural activity, hormonal activity, and signaling activity. Approximately 0.2% (24/14,000) of the host genes, mainly of the same functional categories were downregulated 3- to 11-fold. Immune activity was minor in comparison to our reports on gene expression during latency and heat stressinduction. Euchromatin analysis revealed that the LAT-ICP0 locus is amenable to the effects of NaBu. Histone activity was detected by early transcription of histone cluster 2 H2be (Hist2h2be). CONCLUSIONS. NaBu-induced reactivation of HSV-1 is twofold: drug action involving significant moderation of specific host epigenetic changes and failure to elicit or suppress immune activity at the early time point of 1 hour.
Clement, C.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Kumar, M.; Foster, T. P.; Thompson, H. W.; and Hill, J. M., "Upregulation of Mouse Genes in HSV-1 Latent TG after Butyrate Treatment Implicates the Multiple Roles of the LAT-ICP0 Locus" (2011). Faculty and Staff Publications. 206.