Date of Award


Document Type


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Division of Education and Counseling

First Advisor

Renee V. Akbar

Second Advisor

Margaret Echeverri

Third Advisor

Rosalind P. hale


technology affective filter, digital divide, information communication technology (ICT), computer-based testing CBT-confidence, student performance, digital literacy intervention, coding, keyboarding, video games


Early-childhood digital students grow up in a fast-evolving age of technology requiring them to use and create with technologies and demonstrate core content knowledge. Although third grade students are mandated to master a new language of standardized testing, a large percentage must also learn a language of technology to complete new computer-based tests to measure content mastery. Krashen (1982) defines high affective filter as negative emotional/motivational factors interfering with understanding and cognition. This high affective filter reduces confidence and negatively impacts measuring content mastery on new computerbased tests. Two third grade classrooms at a high-poverty metropolitan school participated in a quasi-experimental study to measure the effects of a digital literacy intervention on computerbased testing confidence and student performance in social studies and mathematics. The intervention group participated in a digital literacy intervention developing keyboarding and coding skills. The control group participated in a mock digital intervention. Both participant groups received computer-based pretests and posttests in social studies and mathematics, and both groups completed Technology-Use Baseline and computer-based testing (CBT) confidence surveys after each pretest and posttest. A comparison of means was used to analyze change between pretest and posttest. Regression analysis and ANOVA were used to determine any v significant relationships between CBT-Confidence, student performance and digital literacy intervention variables. The study results found a significant relationship with a change in student performance and computer-based testing confidence in social studies but not mathematics. There was also a direct, positive significant relationship with the coding intervention and change in computerbased testing confidence in social studies but not mathematics. The researcher suggests that mode of technology integration within the two classrooms impacted the research study. The research study suggests that learner-centered technology integration within the social studies classroom positively impacted the research study when comparing the teacher-centered technology integration within the mathematics classroom. Research study suggests that school leaders consider providing teacher professional development opportunities for learner-centered technology integration (Chow et al., 2012, Considine et al., 2009). Future research could include larger sample population, using the same teacher to teach both subjects, and implementing longitudinal study to track student performance on standardized testing.

Dissertation-4-student-agreement.pdf (358 kB)
Student Agreement



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